Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese statesman and revolutionary who was the first president of the Chinese Republic following the overthrow of the Monarchy which had ruled China since pre-historical records. While at medical school in Hong Kong, he was known as one of the four Bandits. A group who debated Chinese political events and desired the ousting of the Qing Dynasty. He had many ideas for modernization of the Chinese state, but was prevented from presenting them to the leadership. He felt since the leaders were isolating themselves from the will of the people, a revolution was neccessary. A first attempt at removing the Manchu-led rulers ended in failure and Sun went into exile in London where he fundraised for subsequent coups. Imperial secret agents in the U.K. kidnapped Sun and planned to return him to China for execution for his treason. Media outlets, politicians and others managed to pursuede the Chinese to release him. Sun fled to Japan where he armed Filipinos in their fight for freedom from the United States. Sun continued his fundraising for uprisings in China, but all were failures. Because of the revolts lack of success, even those in his own organization wanted him gone.
In October 1911, a military revolt led by Huang Xing was successful. On hearing the news, Sun returned to China and was elected president.